Law of large numbers in gambling

The law of large numbers is sometimes called the gambler’s mistake. Or the other way around, the gambler’s mistake is explained by the law of large numbers. Pity.

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p>/p> p>   &nbs The gambler’s error or gambler’s fallacy is another name for the law of large numbers. Alternatively, the gambler’s error is explained by the law of large numbers. Both have a grain of truth in them. But not quite, and the contraction is also unfavorable. /p> /p> p> Because the law of large numbers extends far beyond a gambler’s error. And there are many more mistakes made by gamblers than just that one law.

The law of large numbers

Jacob Bernoulli, a Swiss mathematician and physicist, developed the law of large numbers in the 17th century. He defined it as follows: the more frequently an event occurs, the more likely it is to represent its true probability.

This can be seen in a variety of gambling games. The roulette game is known to have a 50-50 chance of landing on red or black. Because of the existence of the 0 in the bank, that chance is 48.6 percent (18/37th). /p> h3> Following each other h3> /h3> p> The ball can still go 5 in a row after the first throw, hit red 10, or even 50 times. Because the ball has no memory, the probability of which new throw is 48.6 percent. However, the probability of two consecutive times is 48.6 percent x 48.6 percent = 23.6 percent, while the probability of three consecutive times is only 11.4 percent. /p> /p> p> However, the law of large numbers does not require that the numbers fall one after the other. It deals with large numbers, as the formulation implies. In the roulette example, Bernoulli would say, “If you put a ball in the wheel 10,000 times and write down the result, you will see that it fell 48.6 percent in the red box, 48.6 percent in the black box, and 2.8 percent in the bankers 0.”

Another illustration

Following the above, you will most likely point to heads or tails. After all, the bank’s 0 has no bearing on this. That’s correct. You can toss a coin several times in a row to see if it comes up heads or tails. However, and this is one of the most common gamblers’ errors, the coin has no memory: with each toss, you have a 50% chance of getting heads or tails. /p> /p> p> All the law of large numbers says is that rolling 100, 200, 500, or 5000 times gets you closer to the true probability of the event. When tossing a coin with two different sides, the odds are 50-50. /p> h2> h2>Philosophers/h2> p> Philosophers, those who like to ponder the meaning of life on a sunny terrace, are also interested in the law of large numbers. They might then ponder why people gamble, for example. Because gamblers understand that if they play for an extended period of time, they will always lose. /p> /p> p> However, philosophers fail to recognize that gambling is also a form of entertainment. The game’s fun and tension provide satisfaction. And if you get a big win early on, you can just stop before Bernoulli comes into play. Furthermore, losing money does not always play a role. Many things cost money but provide no (long-term) benefit or profit. /p> h2> Copyshop h2> /h2> p> We mentioned that the law of large numbers extends beyond the realm of gambling. Occasionally, the explanation deviates slightly from the original law. Let’s take a look at a copy shop’s operation. An employee of this company makes copies on a regular basis, and each copy takes him about 10 seconds. The jobs are typically composed of 60 copies. He has already paid for the job and spoken with the customer in the ten minutes that the copier has been running. /p> /p> p> Then a customer arrives with a request for 3000 copies. The man from the copy shop thinks it’s a nice job. However, because he usually copies small numbers, he is unaware of the variation on the law of large numbers. He has to work overtime at 3000 copies and no other work can be accepted; copying takes more than 8 hours (3000 x 10 seconds; we will forget about delays due to refilling paper and the like). /p> h3> Parkinson, Northcote h3> /h3> p> Northote Parkinson, among others, pointed out the additional problems with the law of large numbers. It is a simple and exact mathematical calculation with Bernoulli. In practice, additional factors such as expectation, habituation, psychology, or an organization’s hierarchy can all play a role (the boss is always right, even if he is wrong). /p> /p> p> These extraneous factors are the root of the problems. The gambler may believe, for example, that it is a modified die. That stone has come on two five times in a row, and it will come on two again the sixth time. By the way, due to a weighting on one side, some dice have this operation. /p> h2> Gamblers make mistakes h2> /h2> p> There are several gambling mistakes or thinking errors that gamblers make. The most common is the notion that a roulette ball, dice, or coin has memory. The gambler then believes, incorrectly, that the coin will fall on tail after two or three heads. The coin, on the other hand, has no memory. Each coin toss has a 50/50 chance of being thrown. /p> /p> p> According to the law of large numbers, if you throw for a long enough time, you will always get that ratio when tossing heads and tails. That is the true probability of tossing a coin. /p> h3> The actual probability h3> /h3> p> Several gambling games have true probabilities that can be calculated. It’s already been seen in roulette (48.6 percent for black or red and 2.8 percent for the bank). Because dice have a range of 1 to 6, there is a 16.6 percent chance that you will roll a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. /p> /p> p> There are times when you simply cannot calculate it. Then there are too many uncontrollable variables at work. However, there is always a deciding factor. /p> h4> Additional information /h4> ul> li> Heads or tails? ul> li>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> We’ll return to tossing heads or tails in a moment. It is the simplest form of a random game. The odds are 50-50, and we believe Bernoulli is correct. That ratio is with a lot of throwing. However, following their research, some Polish scientists stated, ‘we can predict the outcome of flipping a coin until it hits the ground’ (pdf). Referees have been tossing the coin thrown to the floor since that study. /li> /li> li> Stanford University researchers expanded on the Polish study. They also discovered that catching the coin in one hand has a slight influence on it. When tossed during their examination, the coin landed on the same side as the underlying side in 51 to 60 percent of the cases. If you hold a coin and see the head, the coin is on the bottom. So, according to the researchers, the chances of throwing heads are 51 to 60%, with the coin image remaining at the bottom. They explain that this is most likely due to the fact that a coin does not simply spin on its imaginary axis after being tossed. The question is whether the law of large numbers will continue to apply in this situation. For that, the researchers should have played for a longer period of time. (pdf) /ul> /li> /li> li> Lottery – On each roll of a die, you have six options. There is only one toss in a lottery, and there are thousands or millions of participants. You could think of these people as being subject to the law of large numbers. The total amount is determined by the total number of tickets sold. This amount is reduced by the organization’s costs and the amount donated to charities. The payout percentage is the only thing that remains. That is always less than the sum of the parts. If it’s 75%, that means each euro invested is only worth 0.75 cents. There will undoubtedly be winners, but the participants will lose overall./li> li> An overview of the probabilities that will result from applying the law of large numbers: ul> li>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 50 percent for either the head or the tail /li> /li> li> 16.6 percent on the dice /li> /li> li> 1.9 percent for cards (when playing 52 cards) /li> /li> li> Blackjack has a 4.839 percent chance of being dealt a 21. / li> li>li>li>li>li>li>li>li> 48.6 percent in roulette (in European roulette). 47.3 percentage point (on American roulette) /li> /li> li> Slots – 0.00009 percent on three pre-selected matches on a mechanical slot with 22 symbols per wheel, for example, three lemons. The likelihood of any three matches is 0.002 percent. /ul> /li> /li> li> Northcote Parkinson identifies several business fallacies. Some of this is also outlined in legislation. Parkinson’s law refers to all of them. Experts discuss Parkinson’s first law, among other things. The most well-known Parkinson’s law is roughly as follows: the time required to complete a task equals the available time. In practice, this means that if you want something done quickly and well, you should delegate it to someone who is already busy. /li> /ul>

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